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The Behavioral Ecology of Male Violence

Source: Quillette

  • Globally, men are 95% of homicide offenders and 79% of victims. Only in countries with very low (and decreasing) homicide rates female victims constitute an increasing share of total victims.
  • Violent conflict is more likely to reduce a female’s fitness, bringing unnecessary danger to her offspring, or cause an injury that may prevent her from reproducing. For a male, violent conflict can potentially increase his reproductive success through increases in status, or by monopolizing access to key resources.
  • There are other factors where we see an association with lethal conflict, such as the link between polygyny and war. Terrorist organizations have exploited marriage inequality among young males for recruits. When some males monopolize access to wealth or mates, young males who are left out may behave violently to try and distinguish themselves, competing for control of such resources.
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Men and Things, Women and People: A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Interests

Source: Iowa State University

  • Results showed that men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people, producing a large effect size on the Things–People dimension. The study suggests that interests may play a critical role in gendered occupational choices and gender disparity in the STEM fields.
  • Men showed stronger Realistic and Investigative interests. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering, science, and mathematics interests.
  • Women showed stronger Artistic, Social, and Conventional interests.
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Women Are Dying Because Doctors Treat Us Like Men

Source: Marie Claire

  • A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found that women are seven times more likely than men to be misdiagnosed and discharged mid-heart-attack because doctors fail to recognize women’s symptoms.
  • There are many diseases and conditions that are more prevalent among women, and medical science has not discovered why. Women are up to four times more likely to have migraines and chronic fatigue, three times more likely to be diagnosed with autoimmune disorders, and twice as likely to have Alzheimer’s, rheumatoid arthritis, and depression. Nonsmoking women are three times more likely to get lung cancer than nonsmoking men.
  • Overall, female patients have a 1.5 to 1.7 times higher chance of having an adverse drug reaction. Research suggests that women metabolize drugs differently from men and thus may require distinct doses, yet dosages are rarely broken down by sex.
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Unpacking the Gender Earnings Gap among Uber driver-partners

Source: Stanford University

  • There is a gender pay gap for Uber drivers, but it’s not attributable to discrimination.
  • ⅓ of the gap is due to experience. Men work more hours than women and gather more experience.
  • ½ of the gap is due to driving speed. Men drive 2.2% faster than women.
  • The rest of the gap is due to location. Men, on average, drive in locations with higher surge and lower wait times
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Are women paid less than men for the same work?

Source: The Economist

  • Although the average woman’s salary in Britain is 29% lower than the average man’s, the gap is the result of differences in rank, compensation rates, and the nature of the job.
  • According to data for 8.7m employees worldwide, women in Britain make just 1% less than men who have the same function and level at the same employer. In most European countries, the discrepancy is similarly small.
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The More Gender Equality, the Fewer Women in STEM

Source: The Atlantic

  • Only 27% of Computer Science students in the United States are female just 18% of Computer Science degrees go to women. Meanwhile, in Algeria, where employment discrimination against women is rife, 41% of STEM college graduates are female.
  • According to a paper from the University of Missouri, it could be because women in countries with higher gender inequality are seeking the clearest possible path to financial freedom.
  • Looking at test scores across 67 countries and regions, girls performed about as well or better than boys did on science in most countries. But when it comes to their relative strengths, in almost all the countries boys’ best subject was science, and girls’ was reading.
  • Gender-equal countries have higher “overall life satisfaction” ratings. It’s not that gender equality discourages girls from pursuing science. It’s that it allows them not to if they’re not interested.
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Incivility at Work: Is ‘Queen Bee Syndrome’ Getting Worse?

Source: University of Arizona

  • Across the three studies, consistent evidence was found that women reported higher levels of incivility from other women than their male counterparts. In other words, women are ruder to each other than they are to men, or than men are to women.
  • The research showed that women who defied gender norms by being more assertive and dominant at work were more likely to be targeted by their female counterparts, compared to women who exhibited fewer of those traits.
  • Evidence emerged that companies may face a greater risk of losing female employees who experience female-instigated incivility, as they reported less satisfaction at work and increased intentions to quit their current jobs in response to these unpleasant experiences.
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DPM&C study finds public servants more likely to hire women

Source: The Canberra Times

  • Researchers found that public servants engaged in positive (not negative) discrimination towards female and minority candidates.
  • Participants were 2.9% more likely to shortlist female candidates and 3.2% less likely to shortlist male applicants. Minority males were 5.8% more likely to be shortlisted and minority females were 8.6% more likely to be shortlisted.
  • Introducing de-identification of applications may have the consequence of decreasing the number of female and minority candidates shortlisted for senior positions.
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Evidence From Norway Shows Gender Quotas Don’t Work For Women

Source: The Federalist

  • The data on corporate profitability and corporate governance is inconclusive. Some companies saw improvement in both areas but some didn’t. Data shows that the substance of decisions and the quality of decision didn’t improve by simply having more women on boards.
  • Some corporations reached for less qualified and less experienced women to meet the quota, which doesn’t help improving corporate performance or governance.
  • The quota has benefited a small group of women who are already high achievers and are at the top of corporate hierarchies. It had no discernible beneficial effect on women at lower levels of the corporate hierarchy.
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Does Work Make Mothers Happy?

Source: Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences

  • Homemakers are generally happier than full-time workers. No significant differences between homemakers and part-time workers were found.
  •  Contrary to expectations, homemaking was positively associated with happiness particularly among mothers who left higher quality employment for childcare.